OT281 How We Got the Old Testament

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In this course, ancient-language expert Dr. Mike Heiser gives a thorough background of the Hebrew Bible’s writing, composition, canonicity, and transmission through the ages. This course also surveys text criticism—what are Hebrew scholars today doing with these ancient manuscripts? How does their work affect English translations of the Bible? By understanding criticism, your personal Bible study will be richer, even with little knowledge of the Hebrew language.

Introduction

Introducing the Speaker
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Introducing the Speaker

1m
Introducing the Course
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Introducing the Course

2m

Preliminary Issues

The Term “Old Testament”
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The Term “Old Testament”

1m
The Scope of the Old Testament
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The Scope of the Old Testament

1m
The Number of Old Testament Books
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The Number of Old Testament Books

2m
The Order and Structure of Old Testament Books
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The Order and Structure of Old Testament Books

3m
Titles of Old Testament Books
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Titles of Old Testament Books

3m
The Authority of the Old Testament
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The Authority of the Old Testament

1m
A Roadmap for the Course
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A Roadmap for the Course

1m

Inspiration

Two Sides to Inspiration
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Two Sides to Inspiration

2m
A Flawed Conception of Inspiration
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A Flawed Conception of Inspiration

3m
A Coherent Conception of Inspiration
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A Coherent Conception of Inspiration

4m
Inspiration Is Not Dictation: Ezekiel
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Inspiration Is Not Dictation: Ezekiel

2m
Inspiration Is Not Dictation: The Synoptic Gospels
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Inspiration Is Not Dictation: The Synoptic Gospels

2m
Inspiration Is Not Dictation: Borrowed Material
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Inspiration Is Not Dictation: Borrowed Material

2m
Searching Ancient Near Eastern Literature for Old Testament References
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Searching Ancient Near Eastern Literature for Old Testament References

5m
Inspiration Is Not Dictation: Changing Laws
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Inspiration Is Not Dictation: Changing Laws

2m
Summary of Inspiration
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Summary of Inspiration

1m

Scripts and Writing

Summary and Preview
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Summary and Preview

1m
The Development of Writing
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The Development of Writing

3m
Scripts
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Scripts

4m
Early Alphabets
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Early Alphabets

3m
The Semitic Alphabet
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The Semitic Alphabet

6m
Writing Materials
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Writing Materials

4m
Writing Instruments
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Writing Instruments

2m
Searching Images for Information on Ancient Writing
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Searching Images for Information on Ancient Writing

3m

The Process of Composition

Preview of the Composition Process
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Preview of the Composition Process

2m
Oral Tradition
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Oral Tradition

2m
Literary Techniques
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Literary Techniques

2m
Known Sources
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Known Sources

3m
Lost Sources
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Lost Sources

3m
Speculative Sources
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Speculative Sources

3m
Original Material
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Original Material

3m
Collecting Material
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Collecting Material

3m
Editing
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Editing

3m
Inspiration as a Process
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Inspiration as a Process

1m
Inspiration and Inerrancy
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Inspiration and Inerrancy

3m

Canon and Canonicity

The Concept of Canon
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The Concept of Canon

5m
Complicating Factors for the Canon
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Complicating Factors for the Canon

5m
The Canon through History
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The Canon through History

5m

Early Transmission of the Hebrew Bible

Manuscript Evidence Prior to 1947
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Manuscript Evidence Prior to 1947

4m
The Aleppo Codex
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The Aleppo Codex

2m
The Leningrad Codex
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The Leningrad Codex

2m
Exploring the Leningrad Codex
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Exploring the Leningrad Codex

4m
The Cairo Genizah
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The Cairo Genizah

4m
Summary of Manuscript Evidence Prior to 1947
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Summary of Manuscript Evidence Prior to 1947

1m
The Dead Sea Scrolls
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The Dead Sea Scrolls

3m
Textual Evidence from Qumran
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Textual Evidence from Qumran

2m
The Hebrew Bible in the Exile
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The Hebrew Bible in the Exile

3m
The Old Testament from 586–400 BC
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The Old Testament from 586–400 BC

5m
A Book in Transition
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A Book in Transition

3m
The Old Testament from 400 BC to AD 100
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The Old Testament from 400 BC to AD 100

2m
The Rise of a Scribal Class
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The Rise of a Scribal Class

6m
The Rise of Multiple Textual Traditions
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The Rise of Multiple Textual Traditions

3m
The Local Texts Theory
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The Local Texts Theory

5m
The Masoretic Text in the Local Text Theory
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The Masoretic Text in the Local Text Theory

4m
The Surviving Texts Theory
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The Surviving Texts Theory

2m
Scribal Practices at Qumran, Part 1
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Scribal Practices at Qumran, Part 1

1m
Scribal Practices at Qumran, Part 2
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Scribal Practices at Qumran, Part 2

3m
Viewing Biblical Dead Sea Scrolls in Logos and Online
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Viewing Biblical Dead Sea Scrolls in Logos and Online

5m

A Period of Ancient Translations

The Septuagint
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The Septuagint

5m
Comparing the Septuagint and the Hebrew Bible
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Comparing the Septuagint and the Hebrew Bible

5m
Aramaic Targums
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Aramaic Targums

4m
Later Translations
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Later Translations

2m
Creating a Layout of Ancient Translations
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Creating a Layout of Ancient Translations

3m

The Hebrew Bible from AD 100–1000

The Importance of AD 100
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The Importance of AD 100

5m
The Role of the Scribes
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The Role of the Scribes

5m
Scribal Innovations
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Scribal Innovations

3m
Marking Problems in the Text
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Marking Problems in the Text

4m
The Masorah
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The Masorah

2m
Viewing and Searching for Ketiv-Qere Readings
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Viewing and Searching for Ketiv-Qere Readings

5m
Vocalization System
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Vocalization System

3m
Variation in the Masoretic Tradition
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Variation in the Masoretic Tradition

5m
Important Manuscripts
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Important Manuscripts

5m

The Hebrew Bible since AD 1000

Transition to Modern Editions
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Transition to Modern Editions

1m
Pre-Reformational Editions of the Old Testament
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Pre-Reformational Editions of the Old Testament

2m
Editions of the Old Testament from the 1500s
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Editions of the Old Testament from the 1500s

5m
Editions of the Old Testament from the 18th and 19th Centuries
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Editions of the Old Testament from the 18th and 19th Centuries

3m
Editions of the Old Testament from the 20th Century
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Editions of the Old Testament from the 20th Century

6m
Editions of the Old Testament in the 21st Century
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Editions of the Old Testament in the 21st Century

4m

Textual Criticism of the Old Testament: Overview

Preview of the Process
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Preview of the Process

2m
Determining Variants
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Determining Variants

1m
Gathering Evidence: The Specialist
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Gathering Evidence: The Specialist

2m
Gathering Evidence: The Non-Specialist
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Gathering Evidence: The Non-Specialist

1m
Examining Textual Variants with the NET Bible
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Examining Textual Variants with the NET Bible

4m
Evaluating Evidence
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Evaluating Evidence

3m

Textual Criticism of the Old Testament: Variant Types

Unintentional Variants: Letter Confusion
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Unintentional Variants: Letter Confusion

1m
Unintentional Variants: Word Division
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Unintentional Variants: Word Division

3m
Unintentional Variants: Vowel Pointing
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Unintentional Variants: Vowel Pointing

3m
Unintentional Variants: Eye Skipping
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Unintentional Variants: Eye Skipping

2m
Unintentional Variants: Haplography
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Unintentional Variants: Haplography

1m
Unintentional Variants: Dittography
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Unintentional Variants: Dittography

1m
Unintentional Variants: Graphic Transposition
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Unintentional Variants: Graphic Transposition

1m
Unintentional Variants: Faulty Hearing
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Unintentional Variants: Faulty Hearing

1m
Intentional Variants
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Intentional Variants

4m

Principles for Evaluating Variants

Determining the Best Reading
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Determining the Best Reading

1m
Internal Considerations
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Internal Considerations

2m
External Considerations
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External Considerations

4m
Using Favorites to Collect Key Resources on Textual Criticism
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Using Favorites to Collect Key Resources on Textual Criticism

4m
An Example
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An Example

5m
Studying a Text Critical Problem in Isaiah 8:11
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Studying a Text Critical Problem in Isaiah 8:11

6m
Revisiting Inspiration and Inerrancy
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Revisiting Inspiration and Inerrancy

3m

The Hebrew Bible and English Translations

English Translations
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English Translations

1m
Evaluating English Translations
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Evaluating English Translations

4m

Conclusion

Summary of the Course
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Summary of the Course

1m