OT281 How We Got the Old Testament

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In this course, ancient-language expert Dr. Mike Heiser gives a thorough background of the Hebrew Bible’s writing, composition, canonicity, and transmission through the ages. This course also surveys text criticism—what are Hebrew scholars today doing with these ancient manuscripts? How does their work affect English translations of the Bible? By understanding criticism, your personal Bible study will be richer, even with little knowledge of the Hebrew language.

Introduction

Introducing the Speaker

Introducing the Speaker

1m
Introducing the Course

Introducing the Course

2m

Preliminary Issues

The Term “Old Testament”

The Term “Old Testament”

1m
The Scope of the Old Testament

The Scope of the Old Testament

1m
The Number of Old Testament Books

The Number of Old Testament Books

2m
The Order and Structure of Old Testament Books

The Order and Structure of Old Testament Books

3m
Titles of Old Testament Books

Titles of Old Testament Books

3m
The Authority of the Old Testament

The Authority of the Old Testament

1m
A Roadmap for the Course

A Roadmap for the Course

1m

Inspiration

Two Sides to Inspiration

Two Sides to Inspiration

2m
A Flawed Conception of Inspiration

A Flawed Conception of Inspiration

3m
A Coherent Conception of Inspiration

A Coherent Conception of Inspiration

4m
Inspiration Is Not Dictation: Ezekiel

Inspiration Is Not Dictation: Ezekiel

2m
Inspiration Is Not Dictation: The Synoptic Gospels

Inspiration Is Not Dictation: The Synoptic Gospels

2m
Inspiration Is Not Dictation: Borrowed Material

Inspiration Is Not Dictation: Borrowed Material

2m
Searching Ancient Near Eastern Literature for Old Testament References

Searching Ancient Near Eastern Literature for Old Testament References

5m
Inspiration Is Not Dictation: Changing Laws

Inspiration Is Not Dictation: Changing Laws

2m
Summary of Inspiration

Summary of Inspiration

1m

Scripts and Writing

Summary and Preview

Summary and Preview

1m
The Development of Writing

The Development of Writing

3m
Scripts

Scripts

4m
Early Alphabets

Early Alphabets

3m
The Semitic Alphabet

The Semitic Alphabet

6m
Writing Materials

Writing Materials

4m
Writing Instruments

Writing Instruments

2m
Searching Images for Information on Ancient Writing

Searching Images for Information on Ancient Writing

3m

The Process of Composition

Preview of the Composition Process

Preview of the Composition Process

2m
Oral Tradition

Oral Tradition

2m
Literary Techniques

Literary Techniques

2m
Known Sources

Known Sources

3m
Lost Sources

Lost Sources

3m
Speculative Sources

Speculative Sources

3m
Original Material

Original Material

3m
Collecting Material

Collecting Material

3m
Editing

Editing

3m
Inspiration as a Process

Inspiration as a Process

1m
Inspiration and Inerrancy

Inspiration and Inerrancy

3m

Canon and Canonicity

The Concept of Canon

The Concept of Canon

5m
Complicating Factors for the Canon

Complicating Factors for the Canon

5m
The Canon through History

The Canon through History

5m

Early Transmission of the Hebrew Bible

Manuscript Evidence Prior to 1947

Manuscript Evidence Prior to 1947

4m
The Aleppo Codex

The Aleppo Codex

2m
The Leningrad Codex

The Leningrad Codex

2m
Exploring the Leningrad Codex

Exploring the Leningrad Codex

4m
The Cairo Genizah

The Cairo Genizah

4m
Summary of Manuscript Evidence Prior to 1947

Summary of Manuscript Evidence Prior to 1947

1m
The Dead Sea Scrolls

The Dead Sea Scrolls

3m
Textual Evidence from Qumran

Textual Evidence from Qumran

2m
The Hebrew Bible in the Exile

The Hebrew Bible in the Exile

3m
The Old Testament from 586–400 BC

The Old Testament from 586–400 BC

5m
A Book in Transition

A Book in Transition

3m
The Old Testament from 400 BC to AD 100

The Old Testament from 400 BC to AD 100

2m
The Rise of a Scribal Class

The Rise of a Scribal Class

6m
The Rise of Multiple Textual Traditions

The Rise of Multiple Textual Traditions

3m
The Local Texts Theory

The Local Texts Theory

5m
The Masoretic Text in the Local Text Theory

The Masoretic Text in the Local Text Theory

4m
The Surviving Texts Theory

The Surviving Texts Theory

2m
Scribal Practices at Qumran, Part 1

Scribal Practices at Qumran, Part 1

1m
Scribal Practices at Qumran, Part 2

Scribal Practices at Qumran, Part 2

3m
Viewing Biblical Dead Sea Scrolls in Logos and Online

Viewing Biblical Dead Sea Scrolls in Logos and Online

5m

A Period of Ancient Translations

The Septuagint

The Septuagint

5m
Comparing the Septuagint and the Hebrew Bible

Comparing the Septuagint and the Hebrew Bible

5m
Aramaic Targums

Aramaic Targums

4m
Later Translations

Later Translations

2m
Creating a Layout of Ancient Translations

Creating a Layout of Ancient Translations

3m

The Hebrew Bible from AD 100–1000

The Importance of AD 100

The Importance of AD 100

5m
The Role of the Scribes

The Role of the Scribes

5m
Scribal Innovations

Scribal Innovations

3m
Marking Problems in the Text

Marking Problems in the Text

4m
The Masorah

The Masorah

2m
Viewing and Searching for Ketiv-Qere Readings

Viewing and Searching for Ketiv-Qere Readings

5m
Vocalization System

Vocalization System

3m
Variation in the Masoretic Tradition

Variation in the Masoretic Tradition

5m
Important Manuscripts

Important Manuscripts

5m

The Hebrew Bible since AD 1000

Transition to Modern Editions

Transition to Modern Editions

1m
Pre-Reformational Editions of the Old Testament

Pre-Reformational Editions of the Old Testament

2m
Editions of the Old Testament from the 1500s

Editions of the Old Testament from the 1500s

5m
Editions of the Old Testament from the 18th and 19th Centuries

Editions of the Old Testament from the 18th and 19th Centuries

3m
Editions of the Old Testament from the 20th Century

Editions of the Old Testament from the 20th Century

6m
Editions of the Old Testament in the 21st Century

Editions of the Old Testament in the 21st Century

4m

Textual Criticism of the Old Testament: Overview

Preview of the Process

Preview of the Process

2m
Determining Variants

Determining Variants

1m
Gathering Evidence: The Specialist

Gathering Evidence: The Specialist

2m
Gathering Evidence: The Non-Specialist

Gathering Evidence: The Non-Specialist

1m
Examining Textual Variants with the NET Bible

Examining Textual Variants with the NET Bible

4m
Evaluating Evidence

Evaluating Evidence

3m

Textual Criticism of the Old Testament: Variant Types

Unintentional Variants: Letter Confusion

Unintentional Variants: Letter Confusion

1m
Unintentional Variants: Word Division

Unintentional Variants: Word Division

3m
Unintentional Variants: Vowel Pointing

Unintentional Variants: Vowel Pointing

3m
Unintentional Variants: Eye Skipping

Unintentional Variants: Eye Skipping

2m
Unintentional Variants: Haplography

Unintentional Variants: Haplography

1m
Unintentional Variants: Dittography

Unintentional Variants: Dittography

1m
Unintentional Variants: Graphic Transposition

Unintentional Variants: Graphic Transposition

1m
Unintentional Variants: Faulty Hearing

Unintentional Variants: Faulty Hearing

1m
Intentional Variants

Intentional Variants

4m

Principles for Evaluating Variants

Determining the Best Reading

Determining the Best Reading

1m
Internal Considerations

Internal Considerations

2m
External Considerations

External Considerations

4m
Using Favorites to Collect Key Resources on Textual Criticism

Using Favorites to Collect Key Resources on Textual Criticism

4m
An Example

An Example

5m
Studying a Text Critical Problem in Isaiah 8:11

Studying a Text Critical Problem in Isaiah 8:11

6m
Revisiting Inspiration and Inerrancy

Revisiting Inspiration and Inerrancy

3m

The Hebrew Bible and English Translations

English Translations

English Translations

1m
Evaluating English Translations

Evaluating English Translations

4m

Conclusion

Summary of the Course

Summary of the Course

1m